Kidney Infection (Pyelonephritis)

What is pyelonephritis?

Pyelonephritis is a type of urinary tract infection (UTI) that affects one or both kidneys

What is the urinary tract ?

The urinary tract is the body’s drainage system for removing wastes and extra water. The urinary tract includes two kidneys, two ureters, a bladder, and a urethra. The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist. They are located near the middle of the back, just below the rib cage, one on each side of the spine. Every day, the two kidneys process about 200 quarts of blood to produce about 1 to 2 quarts of urine, composed of wastes and extra water. Children produce less urine than adults. The amount produced depends on their age. The urine flows from the kidneys to the bladder through tubes called the ureters. The bladder stores urine until releasing it through urination. When the bladder empties, urine flows out of the body through a tube called the urethra at the bottom of the bladder.

What causes pyelonephritis ?

People most at risk for pyelonephritis are those who have a bladder infection and those with a structural, or anatomic, problem in the urinary tract. Urine normally flows only in one direction—from the kidneys to the bladder. However, the flow of urine may be blocked in people with a structural defect of the urinary tract, a kidney stone, or an enlarged prostate—the walnut-shaped gland in men that surrounds the urethra at the neck of the bladder and supplies fluid that goes into semen. Urine can also back up, or reflux, into one or both kidneys. This problem, which is called vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), happens when the valve mechanism that normally prevents backward flow of urine is not working properly. VUR is most commonly diagnosed during childhood. Pregnant women and people with diabetes or a weakened immune system are also at increased risk of pyelonephritis.

What are the symptoms of pyelonephritis?

Symptoms of pyelonephritis can vary depending on a person’s age and may include the following:

Children younger than 2 years old may only have a high fever without symptoms related to the urinary tract. Older people may not have any symptoms related to the urinary tract either; instead, they may exhibit confusion, disordered speech, or hallucinations

What are the complications of pyelonephritis ?

Most people with pyelonephritis do not have complications if appropriately treated with bacteria-fighting medications called antibiotics

In rare cases, pyelonephritis may cause permanent kidney scars, which can lead to chronic kidney disease, high blood pressure, and kidney failure. These problems usually occur in people with a structural problem in the urinary tract, kidney disease from other causes, or repeated episodes of pyelonephritis.

Infection in the kidneys may spread to the bloodstream—a serious condition called sepsis—though this is also uncommon

How is pyelonephritis diagnosed ?

The tests used to diagnose pyelonephritis depend on the patient’s age, gender, and response to treatment and include the following

How is pyelonephritis treated ?

Pyelonephritis is treated with antibiotics, which may need to be taken for several weeks. While a urine sample is sent to a lab for culture, the health care provider may begin treatment with an antibiotic that fights the most common types of bacteria. Once culture results are known and the bacteria is clearly identified, the health care provider may switch the antibiotic to one that more effectively targets the bacteria. Antibiotics may be given through a vein, orally, or both. Urinary tract obstructions are often treated with surgery.

Severely ill patients may be hospitalized and limited to bed rest until they can take the fluids and medications they need on their own. Fluids and medications may be given intravenously during this time.

In adults, repeat urine cultures should be performed after treatment has ended to make sure the infection does not recur. If a repeat test shows infection, another 14-day course of antibiotics is prescribed; if infection recurs again, antibiotics are prescribed for 6 weeks.


Dr Ajay Goyal is an expert in the field of Nephrology and Renal Transplant medicine. He is specialist in management of diseases related to kidneys. He has 16 years of Clinical Experience behind him



Kidney Care Centre,

SCO 137, Sector 14,

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